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World Trade Organization (WTO) www.wto.org
Date of establishment and the basis
- Date of establishment: 1995. 1. 1
- Basis : Commenced in April 1994 by the representatives from 125 countries gathered in Marrakech, Morocco and signed “Marrakech Agreement for the Establishment of World Trade Organization”
Background and the goal of establishment
GATT system which was run for fifty years temporarily after the failure of establishing ITO was limited to managing the order in the rapidly changing scope of the world trade
- In the 1980’s, a variety of the non-duty protection measurements such as the developed countries’ domestic industry protection and the anti-dumping for the improvement of the national revenue
- Recognized the avoidance and exceptions of GATT regulations on farming products and texbile with the high percentage of trade
- Lack of the regulating tool for the order in the international trade against the increasing importance of the new fields of trade such as service and intellectual property and etc.
- At UR round which started in 1986, the World Trade Organization was established to resolve the issues in GATT system for the world trade facilitation under the new trade environment and settle the order in the international trade
Organization and management
- Consists of the organization’s highest-level body, Ministerial Conference, the 2-stage organization, General Council, Dispute Settlement Body and Trade Policy Review Body and 3-stage organization, Council for Trade in Goods, Council for Trade in Services and Council for Trade-related Intellectual Property Rights and etc.
- Ministerial conference is held every two years and it is WTO’s highest-level decision-making body in all matters regarding the plurilateral trade agreements
- General Council consists of the representatives from the member states and performs a central role of WTO by carrying out the functions of the ministerial meeting during the non meeting period.
- WTO Secretariat is to provide the support for the committees and the working groups and it has the total of 650 staffs including one Director General and four Deputy Directors-General.
Member states and the number of conventions and agreements
- As of December 2015, 162 countries have joined WTO and Korea joined WTO upon establishment
- The total of 21 conventions and agreements Marrakech conventions for establishing WTO and its include 17 plurilateral conventions related to product and services and 4 conventions amongst multiple countries
Doha Development Agenda (DDA)
Doha Development Agenda is the first plurilateral trade negotiation since the start of WTO and it was selected in the fourth ministerial meeting in November of 2001 (Qatar Dohaa)
- In stead of ‘New round’ which refers to the multilateral convention, the term, ‘development’ is used to reflect upon the positions of the developing countries
- Negotiated in the total of nine areas including agricultural and NAMA: non-agricultural market access), service, anti-dumping, subsidization, regional cooperation, dispute settlement, trade facilitation, environment, development and the intellectual property rights and etc.
- The negotiation was scheduled to be completed in the packet settlement in pursuit of the simultaneous consent in all areas by the end of 2004. However, the DDA is still in negotiation due to the scope of agenda, the differing positions between developed-developing countries and the opposition by NGO
Response by the KCS
When arranging DDA coping system across the govement, The KCS is assigned for agenda of trade facilitation and actively participating in the agenda negotation as cooperating with the relevant authorities and companies including Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade
* Trade facilitation negotiations: GATT Article 5(Liberalization of the clearance), Article 8 (Export/import charges and procedures), Article 10(Announcement and Implementation of the Trade Regulations) are clarified and improved
- Led the integrative work on the proposal and the proposals in three areas such as Single Window, Time Release Study and Risk Management
- Held workshops independently or jointly for measures of trade facilitation and presented the cases where the trade facilitation measures were introduced
- Also in response to the settlement of DDA Agreement, the KCS is striving to lead our companies to adapt to the new trade environments by improving the role of the customs and the measures for improving the Customs Law and Clearance system